Light or saddle horse breeds
Heavy or draft horse breeds
This page is a list of and , and also includes terms for that are not breeds but are commonly mistaken for breeds. While there is no scientifically accepted definition of the term « breed », a breed is defined generally as having distinct true-breeding characteristics over a number of generations. Its members may be called « ». In most cases, bloodlines of are recorded with a . The concept is somewhat flexible in horses, as are created for developing horse breeds that are not yet fully true-breeding.
Registries also are considered the authority as to whether a given breed is listed as a « horse » or a « pony ». There are also a number of « », , and registries for horses with various or other traits, which admit any animal fitting a given set of physical characteristics, even if there is little or no evidence of the trait being a true-breeding characteristic. Other recording entities or specialty organizations may recognize horses from multiple breeds, thus, for the purposes of this article, such animals are classified as a « type » rather than a « breed ».
The breeds and types listed here are those that already have a Wikipedia article. For a more extensive list, see the .
For additional information, see , , and the individual articles listed below. Additional articles may be listed under and .
Horses are members of Equus ferus caballus that generally mature to be 14.2 (58 inches (150 cm)) or taller, but many breed registries do accept animals under this height and classify them as « horses, » as horse characteristics include factors other than height. For the purposes of this page, if a breed registry or classifies the breed as a horse, it is listed here as a horse, even if some representatives are pony-sized or have some pony characteristics. Pony breeds are listed in the next section, below.
- Abaco Barb, see
- Abyssinian, see
- Altèr Real, see
- American Albino
- Anglo-Arabo-Sardo, see
- Argentine Criollo
- Asian wild horse, see
- Assateague horse, see
- Australian Brumby, see
- Bale, see
- , see Mallorquín and Menorquín
- Bashkir Curly, see Curly horse
- (includes Belgian Half-blood)
- , also Bhotia, Bhote ghoda, Bhutan, Bhutani, Bhutua
- , also called Black Forest cold blood
- Borana, see
- Brabant, see
- (Brasileiro de Hipismo)
- , or Trait Breton
- or Budenny
- Carthusian horse, see
- Castilian horse, see
- Chickasaw Horse, see
- also known as Chilean Corralero
- Cob, see Types of Horse, below
- Colonial Spanish Horse, see Types of Horse, below
- Cretan horse, see
- , also spelled Crioulo
- Daliboz, see
- , also called Dole,
- Don, see
- Draft Trotter, also called Light Dole, Dole Trotter, see
- Dzungarian horse, see
- East Friesian horse, see
- Faroese or Faroe horse, see in pony section
- , or Finnish Horse
- also called Norwegian Fjord Horse
- or Fouta
- (includes Friesian Sport Horses)
- (a type of Friesian cross)
- or Galiceño
- (Caballo de pura raza Gallega)
- German Warmblood or ZfDP, see Types section, below
- , sometimes called « Gypsy Vanner, » « Vanner Horse, » « Gypsy Cob, » and « Coloured Cob »
- also known as Hispano or Spanish Anglo-Arab
- Horro, see
- , also spelled Irish Draft
- sometimes called Irish Hunter
- , also known as Kabardian or Kabardin
- Kafa, see
- also known as Azer At
- Karossier see Ostfriesen and Alt-Oldenburger
- Kundudo, see
- or Lipizzaner
- Lyngshest, see
- Marsh Tacky, see
- Mezőhegyesi sport-horse (sportló), or
Mezőhegyes felver, see
- Metis Trotter, see
- Mongolian Wild Horse, see
- Muraközi, Murakoz, or Muraközi ló, see
- Noma, see Noma pony, in Pony section
- , also called Pinzgauer
- Norsk Kaldblodstraver (Norwegian coldblood trotter), see
- Norwegian Fjord, see
- Ogaden, see
- , also spelled Oldenburgh, Oldenburger
- Paint, see
- , sometimes called Peruvian Stepping Horse
- also called Mulassier
- , a species, not a « breed »
- Pura Raza Española or PRE, see
- Quarter Horse, see
- also known as Rhineland Heavy Draft
- Rottaler, see
- Saddlebred, see
- , also known as Sardinian Horse
- Schwarzwälder Kaltblut, see
- Selale, see
- or Shan Myinn
- also known as Süddeutsches Kaltblut
- Spanish Barb see
- , modern, not to be confused with the historic or Spanish Jennet (see Archaic types, below)
- Spanish Tarpan, see
- Svensk Kallblodstravare (Swedish coldblood trotter), see
- Takhi, see
- Tchernomor, see
- Tinker horse, see
- Tsushima, see
- Tuigpaard, see
- (Cavallo Del Ventasso)
- Vyatka, see pony section
- , also known as Waler or Australian
- Warmblood, see « Types of horse » below, or
individual warmblood breed articles
- Welsh Cob (Section D), see
- or Württemberg
- Žemaitukas, also known as Zemaituka, Zhumd,
Zhemaichu, or Zhmudk, see Pony section.
Ponies are typically classified as members of Equus caballus that mature at less than 14.2 (58 inches, 147 cm). However, some pony breeds may occasionally have individuals who mature over 14.2 but retain all other breed characteristics. Also, some organizations use a different measurement cutoff to distinguish horses and ponies. There are some breeds once classified as ponies that now frequently mature over 14.2 hands due to modern nutrition and management, yet retain the historic classification. For the purposes of this list, if a breed registry classifies the breed as a « pony, » it is listed here as such, even if some individuals have horse characteristics. Otherwise, where there is a dispute as to « horse » or « pony » status of a breed, « horse » is the default.
(Because of this designation by the preference of a given breed registry, most breeds are listed as « horses, » not ponies.)
- American Shetland, see
- , also called Anadolu Ati
- Ariegeois Pony, see in horse section
- Assateague Pony, see
- Asturian pony, see in horse section
- Basque Pony, see
- , also spelled Basotho pony
- Bhutia Pony, see and
- British Riding Pony, see Riding Pony in « types of horse » section
- Carpathian Pony, see
- Caspian pony, see Caspian horse
- Deutsches Reitpony, see
- Falabella, see in horse section
- Flores pony, see
- , also called Deutsche Reitpony
or Weser-Ems Pony
- German Classic Pony, see
- Guangxi, see
- Gǔo-xìa pony, see
- , see also
- , also called Huţul Pony
- Hunter Pony, see « types of horse » section
- Icelandic pony, see in horse section
- Merens Pony, see Ariegeois pony
- Miniature horse, see horse section
- Northlands Pony, see in the horse section
- also called Priob pony
- Riding Pony, see « types of
horses » section
- Sardinian Pony, see Sardinian horse
- Skogsruss, see
- Spiti Pony, see
- Virginia highlander, see horse section
- Welsh mountain pony (Section A), see
- Welsh pony (Section B), see
- Welsh pony of cob type (Section C),
- Yakut Pony, see Yakutian horse
- Yonaguni, see horse section
- Zaniskari, see horse section
- , also known as Zemaituka,
Zhumd, Zhemaichu, or Zhmudka
Color « breeds »
There are some registries that accept horses (and sometimes ponies and mules) of almost any breed or type for registration. Color is either the only criterion for registration or the primary criterion. These are called « , » because unlike « true » horse breeds, there are few other physical requirements, nor is the limited in any fashion. As a general rule, the color also does not always breed on (in some cases due to genetic impossibility), and offspring without the stated color are usually not eligible for recording with the color breed registry. There are breeds that have color that usually breeds « true » as well as distinctive physical characteristics and a limited stud book. These horses are true breeds that have a preferred color, not color breeds, and include the , the , the , and the .
The best-known « color breed » registries that accept horses from many different breeds are for the following colors:
Types of horse
A « type » of horse is not a breed but is used here to categorize groups of horses or horse breeds that are similar in appearance () or use. A type usually has no , and often encompasses several breeds. However, in some nations, particularly in Europe, there is a recording method or means of for certain types to allow them to be licensed for breeding. Horses of a given type may be registered as one of several different recognized breeds, or a grouping may include horses that are of no particular but meet a certain standard of appearance or use.
- (« Autre Que Pur-Sang »), French designation for riding horses « other than Thoroughbred, » usually referring to the , and other Thoroughbred crosses. There is a registry for AQPS horses in France.
- , includes heavily muscled, powerful, yet agile breeds such as the , , , and .
- – any cutting horse in Canada, most of bloodlines
- , a body type of small, sturdy, compact and powerful riding horse with a number of breeds and partbreds falling onto the classification
- , the original -type horse brought to North America, now with a number of modern descendants with various breed names.
- or Draught horse
- , a horse living in the wild, but descended from once-domesticated ancestors. Most « wild » horses today are actually feral. The only true wild (never domesticated) horse in the world today is the .
- , includes a number of breeds with a hereditary intermediate speed four-beat gait, including the , , and many others.
- Galloway, a term used in Australia to collectively refer to show horses over 14 hands but under 15 hands.
- or ZfDP, collective term for any of the various warmblood horses of Germany, of which some may be registered with the nationwide German Horse Breeding Society (ZfDP).
- , a horse of unknown or mixed breed parentage.
- , a basic riding horse, particularly in the UK, also includes horses used in competition.
- , heavy carriage and riding horses, predecessors to the modern , several old-style breeds still in existence today.
- Hunter, a type of jumping horse, either a or a
- Hunter pony, a show hunter or animal under 14.2 , may be actually of a horse or pony breed, height determines category of competition.
- , encompassing horse and pony breeds developed in the , including the , and others.
- , a half-blood type from India
- , abbreviated « M&M, » a specific group of pony breeds native to the British Isles.
- , a developing warmblood type based on Hanoverian and KWPF breeding.
- , the « hot-blooded » breeds originating in the Middle East, such as the Arabian, Akhal-Teke, Barb, and Turkoman horse
- , a variety of breeds and crossbreeds with a significant amount of documentable Arabian blood, but not pure Arab.
- , a horse used in the sport of , not actually a pony, usually a full-sized horse, often a .
- or saddle horse; interchangeable terms for a wide variety of horses bred primarily for suitability as riding animals as opposed to draft or harness work.
- , a term of art used in the United Kingdom for specific types of show ponies.
- or Sporthorse, includes any breeds suitable for use in assorted international competitive disciplines governed by the .
- , agile, heavily muscled riding horses of several different breeds, suitable for working . Not to be confused with the breed . Some representatives colloquially called « cow horse » or « » in the western United States.
- , a group of breeds developed for modern and other disciplines, including the , , , , etc.
- , the carriage horses of British Royalty.
- ZfDP, see German Warmblood, above.
Prior to approximately the 13th century, few pedigrees were written down, and horses were classified by physical type or use. Thus, many terms for did not refer to breeds as we know them today, but rather described appearance or purpose. These terms included:
Extinct subspecies and breeds
These members of equus ferus either were a recognized, distinct breed of horse that no longer exists as such, or subspecies that have become at some point since . This section does not include any species within prior to modern Equus ferus caballus.
Before the availability of DNA techniques to resolve the questions related to the domestication of the horse, various hypotheses were proposed. One classification was based on body types and conformation, suggesting the presence of four basic prototypes, labeled the « », « », and , each of which was hypothesized to have adapted to their environment prior to domestication. However, more recent studies suggest that all domesticated horses originated from a single wild species and that the different body types of horses were entirely a result of after domestication, or possibly adaptation.
These were human-developed breeds which no longer exist.
- The state of the world’s animal genetic resources for food and agriculture. Barbara Rischkowsky and Dafydd Pilling. Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. 2007
- Bennett, Conquerors, p.7
- Edwards, G. The Arabian, pp 1, 3